The Great Peace Treaty
The original Great Peace Treaty from the 1701 summit in Montréal did not survive. This copy, written in a fine hand, was made by Louis-Hector de Callière's secretary a few days after the final signing. It was sent to France for the government's review and for storage in the archives. The secretary wrote out the text, but another hand copied the pictograms of the signatory nations. Each of the Native American ambassadors brought together at Montréal signed for his nation using a figurative symbol. The Cayugas, the "People of the Pipe," signed with a pipe. The Outagamis, or Fox, made an image of a fox, and so on. The final signature by the governor of New France, Chevalier de Callière, stamped France's approval on the resulting agreement.