a. Work - Work in fields, care for animals, haul
water and firewood
b. Position in Deerfield society - Stephen was from one of the
most prestigious families in Deerfield because his father was
c. Plans - Stephen planned to attend Harvard College and become
d. Education - Lessons at home included reading, writing, and
catechism (once each week by law); he might have attended the
town school. Because he was college-bound, he did not plan to
enter an apprenticeship and did not learn many skills requiring
e. Religion - Stephen's people believed in Original Sin and
believed that children were born sinful and must learn to read
for their salvation. The family prayed and read the Bible together
every day and attended four hours of worship services every
- Stephen's complaints and feelings included: his captors were liars; they murdered children; he was made to travel too far too fast; he had sore and frostbitten feet; he was hungry, frightened, angry, uneasy, and desolate.
- A Wobanaki's Life
a. Work- hunt, fish, forage, care for others
b. Education - creation stories of how all creatures came to
be for helping to teach geography and tribal history, stories
as lessons to help correct misbehavior and mistakes
c. Values and skills - care for others, guide by example and
encouragement, honor, independent thought, encouraged innate
abilities, wit, handicrafts, personal pride
a. Wattanummon may have captured Stephen because
as the minister's son, he was more valuable than other captives
in town. Or, Wattanummon might have captured Stephen so he could
give Stephen to someone needing to adopt a son.
b. Wattanummon helped Stephen by giving him moccasins, keeping
him from drowning, keeping him from being killed by others,
and showing him how to eat yokeg without choking.
c. Wattanummon might have been looking for how much Stephen
knew about hunting, trapping and fishing, or how fast he learned
these skills. Wattanummon was also probably looking for what
survival skills (such as strength, will, sense of direction)
Stephen may have had. Although he was young and strong, Stephen
did not seem to have many survival skills, nor know much about
hunting, trapping and fishing, although he did learn a bit about
tracking animals. He was clumsy in the woods.
d. Stephen probably did not do as much in the way of farming
and manual labor as other boys in Deerfield because he was being
groomed for the ministry.
e. One reason for Wattanummon keeping Stephen was that Stephen
was worth ransom money, if nothing else. A reason for not keeping
Stephen was that he did not seem to have the skills
needed to survive in the woods and thus might not have made
a very useful tribal member.
- After Stephen returned home, he may have felt very thankful for being able to come back to a life with which he was more comfortable; he may have paid much closer attention to the plight of other captives still in Canada; his religious convictions might have been strengthened by his captive experience; his knowledge of life in Canada with both Native people and the French may have been useful to others.