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Lesson 10
Kanenstenhawi And Stephen

Subject Areas
• U.S. History - Colonial America and the New Nation
• U.S. History - Native Americans

Middle & high school

Learning Objectives
After completing these activities, students will be able to:
• Explain why captives were taken
• Explain why Stephen and Eunice were treated differently
• Express opinions about why Stephen returned to Deerfield and Eunice did not

• Analyzing primary documents
• Observing and describing
• Interpreting written information
• Comparing and contrasting
• Making inferences
• Thinking critically
• Expressing opinions

Time Required
Two class periods

In this lesson, students learn that Deerfield's captives did not all have the same experiences while in captivity. Captives were taken by a variety of people, for a variety of reasons, and were treated differently. Here students have an opportunity to compare two different captive experiences within the same family.

Guiding Questions
Why did Deerfield's attackers take captives? Why were Stephen and Eunice Kanenstenhawi Williams's captivity experiences so different?

illustration of Eunice Kanenstenhawi Williams and Thaonwensawakon

Eunice Kanenstenhawi Williams and Thaonwensawakon

  illustration of Stephen Williams and Wattanummon

Stephen Williams and Wattanummon
Illustrations by Francis Back.

Preparing to Teach

  1. Go to the People Menu and read the character narratives for Eunice Kanenstenhawi Williams, Stephen Williams, Thaowentsawakon, and Wattanummon.
  2. Go to the Artifacts Menu, click Historic Documents, then click Stephen Williams's Account. Click Text Transcription to read a typed version of Stephen's account.
  3. Go to the Explanations Menu and read Captivity And Return, by Kevin Sweeney.

Teaching the Lesson

  1. If students are using computers in class, instruct them to complete the Student Activity Sheet for this lesson. If they will be using computers elsewhere, either give them the Student Activity Sheet URL (http://1704.deerfield.history.museum/teachers/lesson10_student.jsp), or print the Student Activity Sheet and distribute copies to students.
  2. Once students have completed the Student Activity Sheet, discuss student answers in class.

Suggested answers to the Student Activity Sheet.

From the Explanations Menu on the 1704 website:

  • Epidemics and Social Disorder, by Kevin Sweeney

From the Meet the Five Cultures section of the 1704 website:

  • Learn More about the Kanienkehaka

Captors and Captives, by Evan Haefeli and Kevin Sweeney
The Boy Captive of Old Deerfield, by Mary P. Wells Smith
The Boy Captive in Canada, by Mary P. Wells Smith
The Redeemed Captive Returning to Zion, by John Williams (1706)
The Unredeemed Captive, by John Demos


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