• U.S. History - Colonial America and the New Nation
• U.S. History - Native Americans
Middle & high school
After completing these activities, students will be able to:
• Describe what English homes were made of compared to what Pocumtuck homes were made of
• Describe the impact on the landscape of building each kind of structure and describe the degree of permanence of each structure
• Explain why the Deerfield area is a good site for a community
• Describe how each group changed the landscape
• Express opinions about whether the English and Pocumtuck would have gotten along well living in the same area
• Explain the Chauk deed in regard to who did the selling, what rights were reserved and what protections might have been in place
• Analyzing primary documents
• Observing and describing
• Interpreting written and visual information
• Comparing and contrasting
• Making inferences
• Thinking critically
• Expressing opinions
• Map reading
• Understanding cause and effect
Two to three class periods
Both European and Native American peoples left distinctive imprints on the land because each group used the same land in different ways. In this lesson, students explore some of the differences between these modes of land use by closely examining artwork that depicts homes and communities with surrounding landscapes from each culture, as well as essays that discuss cultural land use.
What problems were caused when both the Pocumtucks and English settlers wanted to use the same land to live in the Deerfield area?
Preparing to Teach
- 1. Familiarize yourself with Wôbanaki housing and
land use by reading sections of Meet the Five Cultures,
Explanations, and Artifacts
on the 1704 website. Here's where you should look to find
Meet the Five Cultures - Wôbanaki - Click Learn More About the Wôbanaki and read the whole essay. Examine the first picture closely.
Artifacts - click Structures/Architectural Elements, then Wigwam.
- click Native Land Use and Settlements in the
Northeastern Woodlands and read the following
sections: Algonkian Homelands, English
Deeds and Native Lands.
- Familiarize yourself with English housing by going to
the American Centuries website (www.americancenturies.mass.edu)
to access the curriculum titled: Everyday
Life in a New England Town - Lesson #4, The Homes, Possessions,
and Way of Life of the Puritans at the First Turn (1680-1720).
Click Part 6: The Wells-Thorn House, then
click the first photo of the Wells-Thorn House, Outside,
down on the right side under the Materials in Context
- Familiarize yourself with English land use on the 1704
website by going to the Explanations
Menu, then clicking European Land Use
and the Transformation of the Northeast. Read from
the beginning of the essay to the section titled French
Acquisition of Lands. Also, read the following
sections: English Acquisition of Lands,
Native Deeds, Establishing Towns,
and English Use of Lands.
- Familiarize yourself with the Deerfield area in 1550 and
1700 by going to the Maps
Menu on the 1704 website, and clicking the
last link, The Deerfield/Pocumtuck Area.
Examine the first illustration of Pocumtuck, circa 1550,
and read the text. Now examine the second illustration and
read the text, Deerfield, circa 1700.
- On the 1704 site, go to the Artifacts Menu and click Historic Documents. Click Chauk Deed and read the text accompanying the deed. You can read a typed version of the deed by clicking Text Transcription or by clicking Interactive Feature.
Teaching the Lesson
- If students are using computers in class, instruct them
to complete the Student
Activity Sheet for this lesson. If they will
be using computers elsewhere, either give them the Student
Activity Sheet URL (http://1704.deerfield.history.museum/teachers/lesson8_student.jsp),
or print the Student Activity Sheet and distribute copies
- Once students have completed the Student Activity Sheets,
discuss student answers in class.
Suggested answers to the Student Activity Sheet.
From the Lifeways Menu on the 1704 website:
- English Lifeways
- Kanienkehaka Lifeways
- Wendat Lifeways
- Wôbanakiak Lifeways
From the Artifacts Menu on the 1704 website:
- Historic Documents Ahimunquat Deed
- Historic Documents Mashalisk Deed
From the Explanations Menu on the 1704 website:
- English Colonization, by Kevin Sweeney
- European Land Use and the Transformation of the Northeast, by Kevin Sweeney
- Native Land Use and Settlements in the Northeastern Woodlands, Marge Bruchac