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Lesson 8
Share and Share Alike? - Student Activity Sheet

  1. Housing:
    a. The structure is made of wooden poles and bark.
    b. They harvested the wood from the surrounding landscape.
    c. Land was cleared; trees were cut down.
    d.Once the house is gone, probably nothing will remain and the site will eventually be covered with trees again. It is interesting to note that although nothing would be visible above ground, archeologists can tell where underground storage pits, post-holes, refuse and fire pits were.

    Land Use:
    a. Land use includes growing crops, burning woods for clearing land and encouraging new growth, traveling on the river, building homes, creating trails, hunting, fishing and foraging.
    b. The land has been altered by clearing the woods and cutting down trees, building homes, creating trails, and planting crops.
    c. These people do not stay in one location year-round. They travel seasonally to fish, garden and hunt, setting up temporary homes in different areas.
    d.The Wobanakiak believed that the land, humans, and other animals were part of the same spirit. They believed that all beings had a close relationship with this spirit. Because of this, they thought that all living things (including plants and animals) should cooperate and share their resources. In their decisions about the land and work upon it, they kept their communal relationship in mind and treated non-humans with the respect due to relatives and ancestors.

  2. a. This is a good site for a home because there is water for travel and drinking, flat land for crops and building homes, plenty of woods for hunting, and ,lumber for construction and firewood.
    b. The homes are not all located in the same area.
  3. Housing:
    a. The structure is made of wood, glass, metal, stone, and brick.
    b. These people harvested the wood and stone from the surrounding landscape, imported the glass, made the bricks, and made the metal parts.
    c. Land was cleared, trees were cut down, a sawmill was built to make boards, a dam was made for the sawmill, and a cellar hole was dug.
    d. Once the house is gone, the cellar hole will remain and sections of the foundation and chimney. There might be bits of metal and glass in the soil. Archeologists would be able to find evidence of where chimneys and cellar holes were and pieces of glass, metal, ceramics, etc. underground as well.

    Land Use:
    a. Land use includes growing crops, building homes, creating roads, establishing fields for animals, and constructing fences.
    b. The land has been altered by clearing the woods and cutting down trees,building homes, creating roads, planting crops, and fencing.
    c. These people stay in one location year-round. Most of what they need is in one spot; they donít rely heavily upon hunting, and it is safer to stay put.
    d. The English believed that vacant, unused land was free for anyone to use and it was their God-given duty to improve it. They did not often see the ways in which Native peoples were using the land or improving upon it, and thus saw nothing wrong with claiming for Great Britain, land that appeared to be vacant. Improvement included building homes and roads and establishing fields and pastures. Because they believed in individual ownership of land, they built fences.

  4. No answer required.
  5. a. This is a good site for a home because there is water for travel and drinking, flat land for crops and building homes, plenty of woods for hunting, and lumber for construction and firewood.
    b. All of the homes are located in one area.
  6. The English and Pocumtuck probably would not have gotten along well living in the same area because the Pocumtuck liked to periodically change the locations of their homes and fields. They also wanted to travel across the land whenever and wherever they chose. They English did not want people trespassing on what they thought was their land. They also did not want the Pocumtuck to build homes or establish gardens on what they considered to be English land. The English did not understand Pocumtuck beliefs nor their way of life.
  7. a. Chauk sold the land to John Pynchon, Eleazer Lusher and Daniel Fisher.
    b. Chauk and his people reserved the rights to continue to fish, hunt and gather nuts.
    c. The English would defend their new land "from any molestation or Incumbrance from Indians otherwise than as before reserved."
  8. The Pocumtuck probably thought that they were sharing the land with the English. They may not have understood that by selling the land, the English would exclusively own and control its use. Chauk might not have understood that only he and his people were awarded hunting, gathering and fishing rights. Other Native people traveling through the area might not have this right.
  9. The English probably wanted to control Native use of their land. They were willing to let Chauk and his people use the land but not others, whom they didn't know, and they didnít want to encourage Native use of what they thought was their land.
  10. The problems were that Chauk might not have been authorized by his people to act alone, and he might not have meant to sell the land; he might have thought he was granting land-use rights, not ownership.
  11. The English constructed fences. This made it harder for the Pocumtuck to travel freely wherever they wished. The English kept livestock and although they fenced them out of certain areas, they did not fence them in. This meant the livestock were free to roam and could have access to Pocumtuck crops. The Pocumtuck spread their homes across the landscape and changed their location once every few years. The English did not do this and did not want the Pocumtuck on their land. Overall, with the English constructing permanent buildings, fences and roads, the Pocumtuck's access to game was greatly limited.

 

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