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Lesson 8
Share and Share Alike? - Student Activity Sheet

  1. First, make some observations about Wôbanaki houses Wôbanaki land use. You will find information in Meet the Five Cultures, Explanations, and Artifacts on the 1704 website. As you read about Wôbanaki homes and land use, ask yourself the following questions and take notes for your answers. Be prepared to discuss your answers to these questions in class.

    Here's what you should look at to find your information:
    Meet the Five Cultures - Wôbanaki - Click Learn More About the Wôbanaki and read the whole essay. Examine the first picture closely.
    Artifacts - click Structures/Architectural Elements, then click Wigwam.
    Explanations - click Native Land Use and Settlements in the Northeastern Woodlands and read the following sections: Algonkian Homelands, English Deeds and Native Lands.

    Think about these questions:

    Housing:
    a. What is this structure made of?
    b. How did these people get their building materials?
    c. What impact was made in the immediate surroundings in order to build this house?
    d. In the future when the house is gone, what will remain on its site? Will there be any way to know that a structure was there?

    Land Use:
    a. In what ways did the Wôbanakiak use the land?
    b. How did they alter the landscape?
    c. Did they move their homes and villages around or stay in one spot? Why?
    d. How did the Wôbanaki connection to the land affect what they did to it.

  2. Now, go to the Maps Menu on the 1704 website and click the last link, The Deerfield/Pocumtuck Area. Examine the first illustration of Pocumtuck, circa 1550 and read the text. Answer the following questions:
    a. Why is this a good site for a home?
    b. Are all of the homes located in one area?
  3. Next, you will be making observations about the land use and houses of the English settlers in Deerfield. Go to the American Centuries website (www.americancenturies.mass.edu) to access the curriculum titled: Everyday Life in a New England Town - Lesson #4, The Homes, Possessions, and Way of Life of the Puritans at the First Turn (1680-1720). Click Part 6: The Wells-Thorn House, then click the first photo of the Wells-Thorn House, Outside, down on the right side under the Materials in Context section. Examine the photo carefully and answer the following questions:
    a. What is this structure made of?
    b. How did these people get their building materials?
    c. What kind of impact was made in the immediate surroundings in order to build this house?
    d. After the house is gone, what will remain on its site? Will there be any way to know that a structure was there?
  4. Go to the Explanations Menu then clicking European Land Use and the Transformation of the Northeast. Read from the beginning up to the section titled French Acquisition of Lands. Also read the following sections: English Acquisition of Lands, Native Deeds, Establishing Towns, and English Use of Lands. Ask yourself the following questions:
    a. In what ways did the English use the land?
    b. How did they alter the landscape?
    c. Did they move their homes and villages around, or stay in one spot? Why?
    d. Note how their connection to the land affected what they did to it.
  5. Go to the Maps Menu on the 1704 website and click the last link, The Deerfield/Pocumtuck Area. Examine the second illustration, Deerfield, circa 1700, and read the text. Answer the following questions:
  6. a. Why is this a good site for a home?
    b. Are all of the homes located in one area?
  7. Compare your answers in numbers 1 through 3 above. Do you think the Pocumtuck and English settlers would have gotten along well living in the same area? Why or why not?
  8. Go to the Artifacts Menu on the 1704 website and choose Historic Documents, then Chauk Deed. Do not read the text accompanying the deed yet. You can read a typed version of the deed by clicking Text Transcription. Read the transcription and answer the following questions:
  9. a. Who sold the land to whom?
    b. Were any rights reserved? If so, what were they?
    c. Were any protections put in place? If so, what were they?
  10. Now read the text accompanying the deed. Although the Pocumtuck had strong relationships with the land, they believed—unlike Europeans—that the land could not be owned. With that in mind, what might they have understood about the following phrases from the deed?
    a. "hath Given Granted Bargained & sold…"
    b. "Have Hold & Injoy & that foreve…r"
    d. "And the sd Chaque...will saue ye sd Major Lusher & Danl ffisher, therire Associates & theire heires & assignes, Harmless or & from all manner of Claimes of any person or persons Lawfully claiming any right Title or Interest in any of ye sd lands hereby Sold..."
  11. The deed states that Chauk could continue fishing, hunting and gathering nuts in the area to be sold, but he was also expected to "Defend the same from any molestations or Incumbrances by Indians otherwise than as before reserved." What do you think the English understood or wanted when they wrote these statements into the deed?
  12. What were the problems with this land transaction?
  13. Think back over all that you have learned in this lesson. In what ways do you think there were incompatible ideas of land use by the Wôbanakiak and English?

 

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